Figure 13: Science Nobel Prizes 1901-2009:
Evolution of cumulative national shares by citizenship at the time of the award.
Countries are ordered from upper left
to lower right corner by
the year their first laureate received a Nobel Prize fraction.
The vertical width of a nation's colored
band at each year measures its percentage of all Nobel Prizes in the sciences (physics, chemistry, medicine)
up to that year (image height = 100%).
Germany led from 1901-1964 (sharing the lead with the UK for one
year 1904-05). Then the US took over.
Note the differences
to the birth-based ranking,
reflecting brain drain to the US (and also the UK).
From Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century,
Jürgen Schmidhuber, 2010. PDF. HTML.